Interim report on an RCT for prophylactic treatment with S. salivarius K12, showing significantly lower cases with treatment. Only patients with symptoms or known positive contacts were tested. Trial identification/registration details are not provided.
Di Pierro et al., 3/12/2021, Randomized Controlled Trial, Italy, Europe, peer-reviewed, 2 authors.
risk of COVID-19 case, 98.0% lower, RR 0.02, p < 0.001, treatment 0 of 64 (0.0%), control 24 of 64 (37.5%), continuity correction due to zero event (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.