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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Probiotics  COVID-19 treatment studies for Probiotics  C19 studies: Probiotics  Probiotics   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
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Other Treatments Global Adoption
Outcomes in COVID-19 probiotics studies
Outcomes in probiotics studies. The immune effects of probiotics are strain-specific and studies use different strains.
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 21% 16 17,535 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk Mortality 59% 5 889 Ventilation 38% 3 325 ICU admission 24% 3 469 Hospitalization 13% 3 710 Recovery 15% 7 1,687 Cases 33% 5 15,597 Viral clearance 4% 3 641 RCTs 29% 7 1,273 RCT mortality 14% 2 550 Peer-reviewed 21% 14 17,003 Prophylaxis 31% 5 15,597 Early 34% 3 673 Late 16% 8 1,265 Probiotics for COVID-19 c19probiotics.com May 2022 Favorsprobiotics Favorscontrol after exclusions
0 0.5 1 1.5+ ALL STUDIES MORTALITY VENTILATION ICU ADMISSION HOSPITALIZATION RECOVERY CASES VIRAL CLEARANCE RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS RCT MORTALITY PEER-REVIEWED After Exclusions ALL STUDIES All Prophylaxis Early Late Probiotics for COVID-19 C19PROBIOTICS.COM MAY 2022
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Haran (RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] death 0/174 1/176 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gutiérre.. (DB RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] no recov. 69/147 105/146 Veterini 29% 0.71 [0.41-1.22] viral time 15 (n) 15 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Early treatment 34% 0.66 [0.55-0.79] 69/336 106/337 34% improvement d'Ettorre 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] death 0/28 4/42 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ceccarelli 64% 0.36 [0.18-0.68] death 10/88 34/112 Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] recov. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Li -12% 1.12 [0.74-1.69] no disch. 30/123 41/188 Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.77-0.96] hosp. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Ceccarelli 70% 0.30 [0.01-7.02] death 0/40 1/29 Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] death 4/99 4/101 Zhang 65% 0.35 [0.02-8.30] ventilation 0/25 1/30 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 37.4%, p = 0.067 Late treatment 16% 0.84 [0.70-1.01] 44/583 85/682 16% improvement Louca 8% 0.92 [0.85-0.99] cases Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Di Pierro (RCT) 98% 0.02 [0.00-0.33] cases 0/64 24/64 Holt 30% 0.70 [0.45-1.10] cases 20/909 426/14,318 Ahanchian (DB RCT) 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.25] symp. case 1/29 4/31 Wischme.. (DB RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.38-1.17] m/s case 16/91 24/91 Tau​2 = 0.11, I​2 = 63.4%, p = 0.085 Prophylaxis 31% 0.69 [0.45-1.05] 37/1,093 478/14,504 31% improvement All studies 21% 0.79 [0.69-0.90] 150/2,012 669/15,523 21% improvement 16 probiotics COVID-19 studies c19probiotics.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 52.3%, p = 0.00043 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Haran (RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] death 0/174 1/176 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gutiérre.. (DB RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] no recov. 69/147 105/146 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Early treatment 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.79] 69/321 106/322 35% improvement d'Ettorre 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] death 0/28 4/42 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ceccarelli 64% 0.36 [0.18-0.68] death 10/88 34/112 Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] recov. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Li -12% 1.12 [0.74-1.69] no disch. 30/123 41/188 Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.77-0.96] hosp. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Ceccarelli 70% 0.30 [0.01-7.02] death 0/40 1/29 Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] death 4/99 4/101 Zhang 65% 0.35 [0.02-8.30] ventilation 0/25 1/30 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 37.4%, p = 0.067 Late treatment 16% 0.84 [0.70-1.01] 44/583 85/682 16% improvement Louca 8% 0.92 [0.85-0.99] cases Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Di Pierro (RCT) 98% 0.02 [0.00-0.33] cases 0/64 24/64 Ahanchian (DB RCT) 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.25] symp. case 1/29 4/31 Wischme.. (DB RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.38-1.17] m/s case 16/91 24/91 Tau​2 = 0.25, I​2 = 68.8%, p = 0.14 Prophylaxis 40% 0.60 [0.30-1.18] 17/184 52/186 40% improvement All studies 20% 0.80 [0.69-0.92] 130/1,088 243/1,190 20% improvement 14 probiotics COVID-19 studies after exclusions c19probiotics.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 56.8%, p = 0.0021 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Haran (RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] 0/174 1/176 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.51 Early treatment 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] 0/174 1/176 67% improvement d'Ettorre 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] 0/28 4/42 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ceccarelli 64% 0.36 [0.18-0.68] 10/88 34/112 Ceccarelli 70% 0.30 [0.01-7.02] 0/40 1/29 Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] 4/99 4/101 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.002 Late treatment 59% 0.41 [0.23-0.72] 14/255 43/284 59% improvement All studies 59% 0.41 [0.23-0.71] 14/429 44/460 59% improvement 5 probiotics COVID-19 mortality results c19probiotics.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0016 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ d'Ettorre 77% 0.23 [0.01-4.63] 0/28 2/42 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ivashkin (RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.23-2.95] 4/99 5/101 Zhang 65% 0.35 [0.02-8.30] 0/25 1/30 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.4 Late treatment 38% 0.62 [0.21-1.87] 4/152 8/173 38% improvement All studies 38% 0.62 [0.21-1.87] 4/152 8/173 38% improvement 3 probiotics COVID-19 mechanical ventilation results c19probiotics.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.4 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Ceccarelli 15% 0.85 [0.48-1.50] 16/88 24/112 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ceccarelli 82% 0.18 [0.02-1.54] 1/40 4/29 Ivashkin (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.24-2.22] 5/99 7/101 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.28 Late treatment 24% 0.76 [0.46-1.24] 22/227 35/242 24% improvement All studies 24% 0.76 [0.46-1.24] 22/227 35/242 24% improvement 3 probiotics COVID-19 ICU results c19probiotics.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.28 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Haran (RCT) 60% 0.40 [0.08-2.06] hosp. 2/174 5/176 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.28 Early treatment 60% 0.40 [0.08-2.06] 2/174 5/176 60% improvement Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.76-1.05] hosp. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.77-0.96] hosp. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0035 Late treatment 13% 0.87 [0.80-0.96] 0/180 0/180 13% improvement All studies 13% 0.87 [0.80-0.95] 2/354 5/356 13% improvement 3 probiotics COVID-19 hospitalization results c19probiotics.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0029 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Haran (RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] death 0/174 1/176 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.51 Early treatment 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] 0/174 1/176 67% improvement d'Ettorre 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] death 0/28 4/42 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ceccarelli 64% 0.36 [0.18-0.68] death 10/88 34/112 Ceccarelli 70% 0.30 [0.01-7.02] death 0/40 1/29 Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] death 4/99 4/101 Zhang 65% 0.35 [0.02-8.30] ventilation 0/25 1/30 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0016 Late treatment 59% 0.41 [0.23-0.71] 14/280 44/314 59% improvement Wischme.. (DB RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.38-1.17] m/s case 16/91 24/91 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.16 Prophylaxis 33% 0.67 [0.38-1.17] 16/91 24/91 33% improvement All studies 48% 0.52 [0.35-0.76] 30/545 69/581 48% improvement 7 probiotics COVID-19 serious outcomes c19probiotics.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.001 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Haran (RCT) 20% 0.80 [0.61-1.04] recov. time 169 (n) 172 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gutiérre.. (DB RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] no recov. 69/147 105/146 Tau​2 = 0.01, I​2 = 26.7%, p = 0.0004 Early treatment 29% 0.71 [0.58-0.86] 69/316 105/318 29% improvement Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] recov. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Li -12% 1.12 [0.74-1.69] no disch. 30/123 41/188 Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.75-0.98] recov. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Ivashkin (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.84-1.08] recov. time 99 (n) 101 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.019 Late treatment 9% 0.91 [0.84-0.98] 30/402 41/469 9% improvement Wischme.. (DB RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.37-1.45] recov. time 91 (n) 91 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.37 Prophylaxis 27% 0.73 [0.37-1.45] 0/91 0/91 27% improvement All studies 15% 0.85 [0.76-0.95] 99/809 146/878 15% improvement 7 probiotics COVID-19 recovery results c19probiotics.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.01, I​2 = 49.9%, p = 0.0047 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Louca 8% 0.92 [0.85-0.99] cases Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Di Pierro (RCT) 98% 0.02 [0.00-0.33] cases 0/64 24/64 Holt 30% 0.70 [0.45-1.10] cases 20/909 426/14,318 Ahanchian (DB RCT) 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.25] symp. case 1/29 4/31 Wischme.. (DB RCT) 38% 0.62 [0.41-0.93] symp. case 24/91 39/91 Tau​2 = 0.11, I​2 = 69.2%, p = 0.059 Prophylaxis 33% 0.67 [0.45-1.02] 45/1,093 493/14,504 33% improvement All studies 33% 0.67 [0.45-1.02] 45/1,093 493/14,504 33% improvement 5 probiotics COVID-19 case results c19probiotics.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.11, I​2 = 69.2%, p = 0.059 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Veterini 29% 0.71 [0.41-1.22] viral time 15 (n) 15 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.22 Early treatment 29% 0.71 [0.41-1.22] 0/15 0/15 29% improvement Li -35% 1.35 [1.13-1.62] viral time 123 (n) 188 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Zhang 17% 0.83 [0.75-0.93] viral time 150 (n) 150 (n) Tau​2 = 0.11, I​2 = 95.1%, p = 0.83 Late treatment -6% 1.06 [0.66-1.70] 0/273 0/338 -6% improvement All studies 4% 0.96 [0.65-1.43] 0/288 0/353 4% improvement 3 probiotics COVID-19 viral clearance results c19probiotics.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.10, I​2 = 90.7%, p = 0.86 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Haran (RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] death 0/174 1/176 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gutiérre.. (DB RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] no recov. 69/147 105/146 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Early treatment 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.79] 69/321 106/322 35% improvement Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] recov. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] death 4/99 4/101 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.2 Late treatment 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] 4/129 4/131 11% improvement Di Pierro (RCT) 98% 0.02 [0.00-0.33] cases 0/64 24/64 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ahanchian (DB RCT) 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.25] symp. case 1/29 4/31 Wischme.. (DB RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.38-1.17] m/s case 16/91 24/91 Tau​2 = 1.73, I​2 = 68.2%, p = 0.11 Prophylaxis 77% 0.23 [0.04-1.41] 17/184 52/186 77% improvement All studies 29% 0.71 [0.52-0.96] 90/634 162/639 29% improvement 7 probiotics COVID-19 Randomized Controlled Trials c19probiotics.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.06, I​2 = 55.9%, p = 0.025 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Haran (RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] 0/174 1/176 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.51 Early treatment 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] 0/174 1/176 67% improvement Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] 4/99 4/101 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.98 Late treatment -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] 4/99 4/101 -2% improvement All studies 14% 0.86 [0.25-3.00] 4/273 5/277 14% improvement 2 probiotics COVID-19 RCT mortality results c19probiotics.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.82 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Gutiérre.. (DB RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] no recov. 69/147 105/146 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Veterini 29% 0.71 [0.41-1.22] viral time 15 (n) 15 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Early treatment 34% 0.66 [0.55-0.80] 69/162 105/161 34% improvement d'Ettorre 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] death 0/28 4/42 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ceccarelli 64% 0.36 [0.18-0.68] death 10/88 34/112 Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] recov. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Li -12% 1.12 [0.74-1.69] no disch. 30/123 41/188 Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.77-0.96] hosp. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Ceccarelli 70% 0.30 [0.01-7.02] death 0/40 1/29 Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] death 4/99 4/101 Zhang 65% 0.35 [0.02-8.30] ventilation 0/25 1/30 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 37.4%, p = 0.067 Late treatment 16% 0.84 [0.70-1.01] 44/583 85/682 16% improvement Louca 8% 0.92 [0.85-0.99] cases Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Di Pierro (RCT) 98% 0.02 [0.00-0.33] cases 0/64 24/64 Holt 30% 0.70 [0.45-1.10] cases 20/909 426/14,318 Ahanchian (DB RCT) 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.25] symp. case 1/29 4/31 Tau​2 = 0.17, I​2 = 69.5%, p = 0.15 Prophylaxis 35% 0.65 [0.37-1.16] 21/1,002 454/14,413 35% improvement All studies 21% 0.79 [0.69-0.91] 134/1,747 644/15,256 21% improvement 14 probiotics COVID-19 peer reviewed trials c19probiotics.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 57.1%, p = 0.0011 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Haran (RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] death 0/174 1/176 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Haran (RCT) 60% 0.40 [0.08-2.06] hosp. 2/174 5/176 Haran (RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.21-1.20] hosp./ER/UC 7/169 15/181 Haran (RCT) 20% 0.80 [0.61-1.04] recov. time 169 (n) 172 (n) Gutiérre.. (DB RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] no recov. 69/147 105/146 Veterini 29% 0.71 [0.41-1.22] viral time 15 (n) 15 (n) d'Ettorre 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] death 0/28 4/42 d'Ettorre 77% 0.23 [0.01-4.63] ventilation 0/28 2/42 d'Ettorre 88% 0.12 [0.02-0.61] progression 28 (n) 42 (n) Ceccarelli 64% 0.36 [0.18-0.68] death 10/88 34/112 Ceccarelli 15% 0.85 [0.48-1.50] ICU 16/88 24/112 Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] recov. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.76-1.05] hosp. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Shah (RCT) 83% 0.17 [0.04-0.68] no recov. 2/30 12/30 CT​1 Shah (RCT) 4% 0.96 [0.80-1.16] no recov. 26/30 27/30 CT​1 Li -12% 1.12 [0.74-1.69] no disch. 30/123 41/188 Li -60% 1.60 [1.21-2.11] no disch. 123 (n) 188 (n) Li -35% 1.35 [1.13-1.62] viral time 123 (n) 188 (n) Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.77-0.96] hosp. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.75-0.98] recov. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Zhang 17% 0.83 [0.75-0.93] viral time 150 (n) 150 (n) Ceccarelli 70% 0.30 [0.01-7.02] death 0/40 1/29 Ceccarelli 82% 0.18 [0.02-1.54] ICU 1/40 4/29 Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] death 4/99 4/101 Ivashkin (RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.23-2.95] ventilation 4/99 5/101 Ivashkin (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.24-2.22] ICU 5/99 7/101 Ivashkin (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.84-1.08] recov. time 99 (n) 101 (n) Zhang 65% 0.35 [0.02-8.30] ventilation 0/25 1/30 Zhang 67% 0.33 [0.10-1.05] antibody 3/25 11/30 Louca 8% 0.92 [0.85-0.99] cases Di Pierro (RCT) 98% 0.02 [0.00-0.33] cases 0/64 24/64 Holt 30% 0.70 [0.45-1.10] cases 20/909 426/14,318 Ahanchian (DB RCT) 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.25] symp. case 1/29 4/31 Ahanchian (DB RCT) 85% 0.15 [0.01-2.73] cases 0/29 3/31 Wischme.. (DB RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.38-1.17] m/s case 16/91 24/91 Wischme.. (DB RCT) 38% 0.62 [0.41-0.93] symp. case 24/91 39/91 Wischme.. (DB RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.37-1.45] recov. time 91 (n) 91 (n) Wischme.. (DB RCT) 43% 0.57 [0.25-1.30] cases 8/91