Retrospective 311 severe condition hospitalized patients in China, 123 treated with probiotics, showing slower viral clearance and recovery with treatment. Authors note that probiotics were able to moderate immunity and decrease the incidence of secondary infections.
Li et al., 3/5/2021, retrospective, China, Asia, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
risk of no hospital discharge, 11.8% higher, RR 1.12, p = 0.68, treatment 30 of 123 (24.4%), control 41 of 188 (21.8%).
time to discharge, 60.0% higher, relative time 1.60, p < 0.001, treatment 123, control 188.
time to viral-, 35.3% higher, relative time 1.35, p < 0.001, treatment 123, control 188.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.