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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Probiotics  COVID-19 treatment studies for Probiotics  C19 studies: Probiotics  Probiotics   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
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Other Treatments Global Adoption
Outcomes in COVID-19 probiotics studies
Outcomes in probiotics studies. The immune effects of probiotics are strain-specific and studies use different strains.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ All studies 21% 13 16,948 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk, 95% CI With exclusions 20% 11 1,691 Mortality 59% 4 539 Ventilation 33% 2 270 ICU admission 24% 3 469 Hospitalization 13% 2 360 Progression 88% 1 70 Recovery 14% 5 1,164 Cases 35% 4 15,415 Viral clearance 4% 3 641 RCTs 29% 5 741 Peer-reviewed 15% 11 1,428 Prophylaxis 35% 4 15,415 Early 34% 2 323 Late 16% 7 1,210 Probiotics for COVID-19 c19probiotics.com Dec 3, 2021 Favors probiotics Favors control
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Gutiérre.. (DB RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] no recov. 69/147 105/146 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Veterini 29% 0.71 [0.41-1.22] viral time 15 (n) 15 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Early treatment 34% 0.66 [0.55-0.80] 69/162 105/161 34% improvement d'Ettorre 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] death 0/28 4/42 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ceccarelli 64% 0.36 [0.18-0.68] death 10/88 34/112 Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] recov. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Li -12% 1.12 [0.74-1.69] no disch. 30/123 41/188 Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.77-0.96] hosp. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Ceccarelli 70% 0.30 [0.01-7.02] death 0/40 1/29 Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] death 4/99 4/101 Tau​2 = 0.02; I​2 = 44.9% Late treatment 16% 0.84 [0.69-1.02] 44/558 84/652 16% improvement Louca 8% 0.92 [0.85-0.99] cases Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Di Pierro (RCT) 98% 0.02 [0.00-0.33] cases 0/64 24/64 Holt 30% 0.70 [0.45-1.10] cases 20/909 426/14,318 Ahanchian (DB RCT) 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.25] symp. case 1/29 4/31 Tau​2 = 0.17; I​2 = 69.5% Prophylaxis 35% 0.65 [0.37-1.16] 21/1,002 454/14,413 35% improvement All studies 21% 0.79 [0.69-0.91] 134/1,722 643/15,226 21% improvement 13 probiotics COVID-19 studies c19probiotics.com Dec 3, 2021 1 CT: study uses combined treatmentTau​2 = 0.02; I​2 = 60.0%; Z = 3.23 Effect extraction pre-specified Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Gutiérre.. (DB RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] no recov. 69/147 105/146 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Early treatment 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] 69/147 105/146 35% improvement d'Ettorre 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] death 0/28 4/42 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ceccarelli 64% 0.36 [0.18-0.68] death 10/88 34/112 Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] recov. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Li -12% 1.12 [0.74-1.69] no disch. 30/123 41/188 Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.77-0.96] hosp. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Ceccarelli 70% 0.30 [0.01-7.02] death 0/40 1/29 Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] death 4/99 4/101 Tau​2 = 0.02; I​2 = 44.9% Late treatment 16% 0.84 [0.69-1.02] 44/558 84/652 16% improvement Louca 8% 0.92 [0.85-0.99] cases Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Di Pierro (RCT) 98% 0.02 [0.00-0.33] cases 0/64 24/64 Ahanchian (DB RCT) 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.25] symp. case 1/29 4/31 Tau​2 = 2.41; I​2 = 76.4% Prophylaxis 75% 0.25 [0.03-1.91] 1/93 28/95 75% improvement All studies 20% 0.80 [0.69-0.94] 114/798 217/893 20% improvement 11 probiotics COVID-19 studies after exclusions c19probiotics.com Dec 3, 2021 1 CT: study uses combined treatmentTau​2 = 0.02; I​2 = 65.0%; Z = 2.76 Effect extraction pre-specified Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ d'Ettorre 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] 0/28 4/42 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ceccarelli 64% 0.36 [0.18-0.68] 10/88 34/112 Ceccarelli 70% 0.30 [0.01-7.02] 0/40 1/29 Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] 4/99 4/101 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Late treatment 59% 0.41 [0.23-0.72] 14/255 43/284 59% improvement All studies 59% 0.41 [0.23-0.72] 14/255 43/284 59% improvement 4 probiotics COVID-19 mortality results c19probiotics.com Dec 3, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%; Z = 3.10 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ d'Ettorre 77% 0.23 [0.01-4.63] 0/28 2/42 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ivashkin (RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.23-2.95] 4/99 5/101 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Late treatment 33% 0.67 [0.21-2.19] 4/127 7/143 33% improvement All studies 33% 0.67 [0.21-2.19] 4/127 7/143 33% improvement 2 probiotics COVID-19 mechanical ventilation results c19probiotics.com Dec 3, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%; Z = 0.66 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Ceccarelli 15% 0.85 [0.48-1.50] 16/88 24/112 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ceccarelli 82% 0.18 [0.02-1.54] 1/40 4/29 Ivashkin (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.24-2.22] 5/99 7/101 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Late treatment 24% 0.76 [0.46-1.24] 22/227 35/242 24% improvement All studies 24% 0.76 [0.46-1.24] 22/227 35/242 24% improvement 3 probiotics COVID-19 ICU results c19probiotics.com Dec 3, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%; Z = 1.10 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.76-1.05] hosp. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.77-0.96] hosp. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Late treatment 13% 0.87 [0.80-0.96] 0/180 0/180 13% improvement All studies 13% 0.87 [0.80-0.96] 0/180 0/180 13% improvement 2 probiotics COVID-19 hospitalization results c19probiotics.com Dec 3, 2021 1 CT: study uses combined treatmentTau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%; Z = 2.92 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ d'Ettorre 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] death 0/28 4/42 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ceccarelli 64% 0.36 [0.18-0.68] death 10/88 34/112 Ceccarelli 70% 0.30 [0.01-7.02] death 0/40 1/29 Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] death 4/99 4/101 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Late treatment 59% 0.41 [0.23-0.72] 14/255 43/284 59% improvement All studies 59% 0.41 [0.23-0.72] 14/255 43/284 59% improvement 4 probiotics COVID-19 serious outcomes c19probiotics.com Dec 3, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%; Z = 3.10 Effect extraction pre-specified Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Gutiérre.. (DB RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] no recov. 69/147 105/146 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Early treatment 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] 69/147 105/146 35% improvement Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] recov. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Li -12% 1.12 [0.74-1.69] no disch. 30/123 41/188 Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.75-0.98] recov. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Ivashkin (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.84-1.08] recov. time 99 (n) 101 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Late treatment 9% 0.91 [0.84-0.98] 30/402 41/469 9% improvement All studies 14% 0.86 [0.75-0.99] 99/549 146/615 14% improvement 5 probiotics COVID-19 recovery results c19probiotics.com Dec 3, 2021 1 CT: study uses combined treatmentTau​2 = 0.01; I​2 = 64.9%; Z = 2.16 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Louca 8% 0.92 [0.85-0.99] Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Di Pierro (RCT) 98% 0.02 [0.00-0.33] 0/64 24/64 Holt 30% 0.70 [0.45-1.10] 20/909 426/14,318 Ahanchian (DB RCT) 85% 0.15 [0.01-2.73] 0/29 3/31 Tau​2 = 0.18; I​2 = 70.2% Prophylaxis 35% 0.65 [0.36-1.18] 20/1,002 453/14,413 35% improvement All studies 35% 0.65 [0.36-1.18] 20/1,002 453/14,413 35% improvement 4 probiotics COVID-19 case results c19probiotics.com Dec 3, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.18; I​2 = 70.2%; Z = 1.41 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Veterini 29% 0.71 [0.41-1.22] viral time 15 (n) 15 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Early treatment 29% 0.71 [0.41-1.22] 0/15 0/15 29% improvement Li -35% 1.35 [1.13-1.62] viral time 123 (n) 188 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Zhang 17% 0.83 [0.75-0.93] viral time 150 (n) 150 (n) Tau​2 = 0.11; I​2 = 95.1% Late treatment -6% 1.06 [0.66-1.70] 0/273 0/338 -6% improvement All studies 4% 0.96 [0.65-1.43] 0/288 0/353 4% improvement 3 probiotics COVID-19 viral clearance results c19probiotics.com Dec 3, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.10; I​2 = 90.7%; Z = 0.18 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Gutiérre.. (DB RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] no recov. 69/147 105/146 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Early treatment 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] 69/147 105/146 35% improvement Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] recov. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] death 4/99 4/101 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Late treatment 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] 4/129 4/131 11% improvement Di Pierro (RCT) 98% 0.02 [0.00-0.33] cases 0/64 24/64 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ahanchian (DB RCT) 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.25] symp. case 1/29 4/31 Tau​2 = 1.71; I​2 = 51.7% Prophylaxis 91% 0.09 [0.01-1.06] 1/93 28/95 91% improvement All studies 29% 0.71 [0.48-1.04] 74/369 137/372 29% improvement 5 probiotics COVID-19 Randomized Controlled Trials c19probiotics.com Dec 3, 2021 1 CT: study uses combined treatmentTau​2 = 0.08; I​2 = 69.4%; Z = 1.77 Effect extraction pre-specified Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] 4/99 4/101 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Late treatment -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] 4/99 4/101 -2% improvement All studies -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] 4/99 4/101 -2% improvement 1 probiotics COVID-19 RCT mortality result c19probiotics.com Dec 3, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%; Z = 0.03 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Veterini 29% 0.71 [0.41-1.22] viral time 15 (n) 15 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Early treatment 29% 0.71 [0.41-1.22] 0/15 0/15 29% improvement d'Ettorre 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] death 0/28 4/42 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ceccarelli 64% 0.36 [0.18-0.68] death 10/88 34/112 Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] recov. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Li -12% 1.12 [0.74-1.69] no disch. 30/123 41/188 Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.77-0.96] hosp. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Ceccarelli 70% 0.30 [0.01-7.02] death 0/40 1/29 Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] death 4/99 4/101 Tau​2 = 0.02; I​2 = 44.9% Late treatment 16% 0.84 [0.69-1.02] 44/558 84/652 16% improvement Louca 8% 0.92 [0.85-0.99] cases Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Di Pierro (RCT) 98% 0.02 [0.00-0.33] cases 0/64 24/64 Ahanchian (DB RCT) 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.25] symp. case 1/29 4/31 Tau​2 = 2.41; I​2 = 76.4% Prophylaxis 75% 0.25 [0.03-1.91] 1/93 28/95 75% improvement All studies 15% 0.85 [0.73-0.98] 45/666 112/762 15% improvement 11 probiotics COVID-19 peer reviewed trials c19probiotics.com Dec 3, 2021 1 CT: study uses combined treatmentTau​2 = 0.02; I​2 = 51.7%; Z = 2.31 Effect extraction pre-specified Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Gutiérre.. (DB RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] no recov. 69/147 105/146 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Veterini 29% 0.71 [0.41-1.22] viral time 15 (n) 15 (n) d'Ettorre 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] death 0/28 4/42 d'Ettorre 77% 0.23 [0.01-4.63] ventilation 0/28 2/42 d'Ettorre 88% 0.12 [0.02-0.61] progression 28 (n) 42 (n) Ceccarelli 64% 0.36 [0.18-0.68] death 10/88 34/112 Ceccarelli 15% 0.85 [0.48-1.50] ICU 16/88 24/112 Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] recov. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.76-1.05] hosp. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Shah (RCT) 83% 0.17 [0.04-0.68] no recov. 2/30 12/30 CT​1 Shah (RCT) 4% 0.96 [0.80-1.16] no recov. 26/30 27/30 CT​1 Li -12% 1.12 [0.74-1.69] no disch. 30/123 41/188 Li -60% 1.60 [1.21-2.11] no disch. 123 (n) 188 (n) Li -35% 1.35 [1.13-1.62] viral time 123 (n) 188 (n) Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.77-0.96] hosp. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.75-0.98] recov. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Zhang 17% 0.83 [0.75-0.93] viral time 150 (n) 150 (n) Ceccarelli 70% 0.30 [0.01-7.02] death 0/40 1/29 Ceccarelli 82% 0.18 [0.02-1.54] ICU 1/40 4/29 Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] death 4/99 4/101 Ivashkin (RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.23-2.95] ventilation 4/99 5/101 Ivashkin (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.24-2.22] ICU 5/99 7/101 Ivashkin (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.84-1.08] recov. time 99 (n) 101 (n) Louca 8% 0.92 [0.85-0.99] cases Di Pierro (RCT) 98% 0.02 [0.00-0.33] cases 0/64 24/64 Holt 30% 0.70 [0.45-1.10] cases 20/909 426/14,318 Ahanchian (DB RCT) 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.25] symp. case 1/29 4/31 Ahanchian (DB RCT) 85% 0.15 [0.01-2.73] cases 0/29 3/31 probiotics COVID-19 outcomes c19probiotics.com Dec 3, 2021 Favors probiotics Favors control
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both extremely valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. Treatment protocols for physicians are available from the FLCCC.
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