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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Probiotics  COVID-19 treatment studies for Probiotics  C19 studies: Probiotics  Probiotics   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
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Outcomes in COVID-19 probiotics studies
Outcomes in probiotics studies. The immune effects of probiotics are strain-specific and studies use different strains.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ All studies 21% 15 17,480 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk With exclusions 20% 13 2,223 Mortality 59% 5 889 Ventilation 33% 2 270 ICU admission 24% 3 469 Hospitalization 13% 3 710 Recovery 15% 7 1,687 Cases 33% 5 15,597 Viral clearance 4% 3 641 RCTs 29% 7 1,273 RCT mortality 14% 2 550 Peer-reviewed 21% 13 16,948 Prophylaxis 31% 5 15,597 Early 34% 3 673 Late 16% 7 1,210 Probiotics for COVID-19 c19probiotics.com Jan 26, 2022 Favors probiotics Favors control
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Haran (RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] death 0/174 1/176 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gutiérre.. (DB RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] no recov. 69/147 105/146 Veterini 29% 0.71 [0.41-1.22] viral time 15 (n) 15 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Early treatment 34% 0.66 [0.55-0.79] 69/336 106/337 34% improvement d'Ettorre 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] death 0/28 4/42 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ceccarelli 64% 0.36 [0.18-0.68] death 10/88 34/112 Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] recov. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Li -12% 1.12 [0.74-1.69] no disch. 30/123 41/188 Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.77-0.96] hosp. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Ceccarelli 70% 0.30 [0.01-7.02] death 0/40 1/29 Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] death 4/99 4/101 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 44.9%, p = 0.08 Late treatment 16% 0.84 [0.69-1.02] 44/558 84/652 16% improvement Louca 8% 0.92 [0.85-0.99] cases Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Di Pierro (RCT) 98% 0.02 [0.00-0.33] cases 0/64 24/64 Holt 30% 0.70 [0.45-1.10] cases 20/909 426/14,318 Ahanchian (DB RCT) 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.25] symp. case 1/29 4/31 Wischme.. (DB RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.38-1.17] m/s case 16/91 24/91 Tau​2 = 0.11, I​2 = 63.4%, p = 0.085 Prophylaxis 31% 0.69 [0.45-1.05] 37/1,093 478/14,504 31% improvement All studies 21% 0.79 [0.69-0.90] 150/1,987 668/15,493 21% improvement 15 probiotics COVID-19 studies c19probiotics.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 55.1%, p = 0.00051 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Haran (RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] death 0/174 1/176 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gutiérre.. (DB RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] no recov. 69/147 105/146 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Early treatment 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.79] 69/321 106/322 35% improvement d'Ettorre 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] death 0/28 4/42 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ceccarelli 64% 0.36 [0.18-0.68] death 10/88 34/112 Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] recov. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Li -12% 1.12 [0.74-1.69] no disch. 30/123 41/188 Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.77-0.96] hosp. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Ceccarelli 70% 0.30 [0.01-7.02] death 0/40 1/29 Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] death 4/99 4/101 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 44.9%, p = 0.08 Late treatment 16% 0.84 [0.69-1.02] 44/558 84/652 16% improvement Louca 8% 0.92 [0.85-0.99] cases Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Di Pierro (RCT) 98% 0.02 [0.00-0.33] cases 0/64 24/64 Ahanchian (DB RCT) 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.25] symp. case 1/29 4/31 Wischme.. (DB RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.38-1.17] m/s case 16/91 24/91 Tau​2 = 0.25, I​2 = 68.8%, p = 0.14 Prophylaxis 40% 0.60 [0.30-1.18] 17/184 52/186 40% improvement All studies 20% 0.80 [0.69-0.92] 130/1,063 242/1,160 20% improvement 13 probiotics COVID-19 studies after exclusions c19probiotics.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 59.7%, p = 0.0024 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Haran (RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] 0/174 1/176 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.51 Early treatment 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] 0/174 1/176 67% improvement d'Ettorre 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] 0/28 4/42 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ceccarelli 64% 0.36 [0.18-0.68] 10/88 34/112 Ceccarelli 70% 0.30 [0.01-7.02] 0/40 1/29 Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] 4/99 4/101 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.002 Late treatment 59% 0.41 [0.23-0.72] 14/255 43/284 59% improvement All studies 59% 0.41 [0.23-0.71] 14/429 44/460 59% improvement 5 probiotics COVID-19 mortality results c19probiotics.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0016 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ d'Ettorre 77% 0.23 [0.01-4.63] 0/28 2/42 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ivashkin (RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.23-2.95] 4/99 5/101 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.52 Late treatment 33% 0.67 [0.21-2.19] 4/127 7/143 33% improvement All studies 33% 0.67 [0.21-2.19] 4/127 7/143 33% improvement 2 probiotics COVID-19 mechanical ventilation results c19probiotics.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.52 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Ceccarelli 15% 0.85 [0.48-1.50] 16/88 24/112 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ceccarelli 82% 0.18 [0.02-1.54] 1/40 4/29 Ivashkin (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.24-2.22] 5/99 7/101 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.28 Late treatment 24% 0.76 [0.46-1.24] 22/227 35/242 24% improvement All studies 24% 0.76 [0.46-1.24] 22/227 35/242 24% improvement 3 probiotics COVID-19 ICU results c19probiotics.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.28 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Haran (RCT) 60% 0.40 [0.08-2.06] hosp. 2/174 5/176 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.28 Early treatment 60% 0.40 [0.08-2.06] 2/174 5/176 60% improvement Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.76-1.05] hosp. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.77-0.96] hosp. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0035 Late treatment 13% 0.87 [0.80-0.96] 0/180 0/180 13% improvement All studies 13% 0.87 [0.80-0.95] 2/354 5/356 13% improvement 3 probiotics COVID-19 hospitalization results c19probiotics.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0029 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Haran (RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] death 0/174 1/176 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.51 Early treatment 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] 0/174 1/176 67% improvement d'Ettorre 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] death 0/28 4/42 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ceccarelli 64% 0.36 [0.18-0.68] death 10/88 34/112 Ceccarelli 70% 0.30 [0.01-7.02] death 0/40 1/29 Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] death 4/99 4/101 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.002 Late treatment 59% 0.41 [0.23-0.72] 14/255 43/284 59% improvement Wischme.. (DB RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.38-1.17] m/s case 16/91 24/91 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.16 Prophylaxis 33% 0.67 [0.38-1.17] 16/91 24/91 33% improvement All studies 48% 0.52 [0.35-0.77] 30/520 68/551 48% improvement 6 probiotics COVID-19 serious outcomes c19probiotics.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0012 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Haran (RCT) 20% 0.80 [0.61-1.04] recov. time 169 (n) 172 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gutiérre.. (DB RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] no recov. 69/147 105/146 Tau​2 = 0.01, I​2 = 26.7%, p = 0.0004 Early treatment 29% 0.71 [0.58-0.86] 69/316 105/318 29% improvement Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] recov. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Li -12% 1.12 [0.74-1.69] no disch. 30/123 41/188 Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.75-0.98] recov. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Ivashkin (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.84-1.08] recov. time 99 (n) 101 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.019 Late treatment 9% 0.91 [0.84-0.98] 30/402 41/469 9% improvement Wischme.. (DB RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.37-1.45] recov. time 91 (n) 91 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.37 Prophylaxis 27% 0.73 [0.37-1.45] 0/91 0/91 27% improvement All studies 15% 0.85 [0.76-0.95] 99/809 146/878 15% improvement 7 probiotics COVID-19 recovery results c19probiotics.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.01, I​2 = 49.9%, p = 0.0047 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Louca 8% 0.92 [0.85-0.99] cases Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Di Pierro (RCT) 98% 0.02 [0.00-0.33] cases 0/64 24/64 Holt 30% 0.70 [0.45-1.10] cases 20/909 426/14,318 Ahanchian (DB RCT) 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.25] symp. case 1/29 4/31 Wischme.. (DB RCT) 38% 0.62 [0.41-0.93] symp. case 24/91 39/91 Tau​2 = 0.11, I​2 = 69.2%, p = 0.059 Prophylaxis 33% 0.67 [0.45-1.02] 45/1,093 493/14,504 33% improvement All studies 33% 0.67 [0.45-1.02] 45/1,093 493/14,504 33% improvement 5 probiotics COVID-19 case results c19probiotics.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.11, I​2 = 69.2%, p = 0.059 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Veterini 29% 0.71 [0.41-1.22] viral time 15 (n) 15 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.22 Early treatment 29% 0.71 [0.41-1.22] 0/15 0/15 29% improvement Li -35% 1.35 [1.13-1.62] viral time 123 (n) 188 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Zhang 17% 0.83 [0.75-0.93] viral time 150 (n) 150 (n) Tau​2 = 0.11, I​2 = 95.1%, p = 0.83 Late treatment -6% 1.06 [0.66-1.70] 0/273 0/338 -6% improvement All studies 4% 0.96 [0.65-1.43] 0/288 0/353 4% improvement 3 probiotics COVID-19 viral clearance results c19probiotics.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.10, I​2 = 90.7%, p = 0.86 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Haran (RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] death 0/174 1/176 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gutiérre.. (DB RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] no recov. 69/147 105/146 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Early treatment 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.79] 69/321 106/322 35% improvement Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] recov. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] death 4/99 4/101 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.2 Late treatment 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] 4/129 4/131 11% improvement Di Pierro (RCT) 98% 0.02 [0.00-0.33] cases 0/64 24/64 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ahanchian (DB RCT) 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.25] symp. case 1/29 4/31 Wischme.. (DB RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.38-1.17] m/s case 16/91 24/91 Tau​2 = 1.73, I​2 = 68.2%, p = 0.11 Prophylaxis 77% 0.23 [0.04-1.41] 17/184 52/186 77% improvement All studies 29% 0.71 [0.52-0.96] 90/634 162/639 29% improvement 7 probiotics COVID-19 Randomized Controlled Trials c19probiotics.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.06, I​2 = 55.9%, p = 0.025 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Haran (RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] 0/174 1/176 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.51 Early treatment 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] 0/174 1/176 67% improvement Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] 4/99 4/101 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.98 Late treatment -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] 4/99 4/101 -2% improvement All studies 14% 0.86 [0.25-3.00] 4/273 5/277 14% improvement 2 probiotics COVID-19 RCT mortality results c19probiotics.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.82 Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Gutiérre.. (DB RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] no recov. 69/147 105/146 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Veterini 29% 0.71 [0.41-1.22] viral time 15 (n) 15 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Early treatment 34% 0.66 [0.55-0.80] 69/162 105/161 34% improvement d'Ettorre 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] death 0/28 4/42 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ceccarelli 64% 0.36 [0.18-0.68] death 10/88 34/112 Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] recov. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Li -12% 1.12 [0.74-1.69] no disch. 30/123 41/188 Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.77-0.96] hosp. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Ceccarelli 70% 0.30 [0.01-7.02] death 0/40 1/29 Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] death 4/99 4/101 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 44.9%, p = 0.08 Late treatment 16% 0.84 [0.69-1.02] 44/558 84/652 16% improvement Louca 8% 0.92 [0.85-0.99] cases Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Di Pierro (RCT) 98% 0.02 [0.00-0.33] cases 0/64 24/64 Holt 30% 0.70 [0.45-1.10] cases 20/909 426/14,318 Ahanchian (DB RCT) 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.25] symp. case 1/29 4/31 Tau​2 = 0.17, I​2 = 69.5%, p = 0.15 Prophylaxis 35% 0.65 [0.37-1.16] 21/1,002 454/14,413 35% improvement All studies 21% 0.79 [0.69-0.91] 134/1,722 643/15,226 21% improvement 13 probiotics COVID-19 peer reviewed trials c19probiotics.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 60.0%, p = 0.0013 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors probiotics Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Haran (RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] death 0/174 1/176 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Haran (RCT) 60% 0.40 [0.08-2.06] hosp. 2/174 5/176 Haran (RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.21-1.20] hosp./ER/UC 7/169 15/181 Haran (RCT) 20% 0.80 [0.61-1.04] recov. time 169 (n) 172 (n) Gutiérre.. (DB RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.80] no recov. 69/147 105/146 Veterini 29% 0.71 [0.41-1.22] viral time 15 (n) 15 (n) d'Ettorre 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] death 0/28 4/42 d'Ettorre 77% 0.23 [0.01-4.63] ventilation 0/28 2/42 d'Ettorre 88% 0.12 [0.02-0.61] progression 28 (n) 42 (n) Ceccarelli 64% 0.36 [0.18-0.68] death 10/88 34/112 Ceccarelli 15% 0.85 [0.48-1.50] ICU 16/88 24/112 Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.75-1.06] recov. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Shah (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.76-1.05] hosp. time 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Shah (RCT) 83% 0.17 [0.04-0.68] no recov. 2/30 12/30 CT​1 Shah (RCT) 4% 0.96 [0.80-1.16] no recov. 26/30 27/30 CT​1 Li -12% 1.12 [0.74-1.69] no disch. 30/123 41/188 Li -60% 1.60 [1.21-2.11] no disch. 123 (n) 188 (n) Li -35% 1.35 [1.13-1.62] viral time 123 (n) 188 (n) Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.77-0.96] hosp. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Zhang 14% 0.86 [0.75-0.98] recov. time 150 (n) 150 (n) Zhang 17% 0.83 [0.75-0.93] viral time 150 (n) 150 (n) Ceccarelli 70% 0.30 [0.01-7.02] death 0/40 1/29 Ceccarelli 82% 0.18 [0.02-1.54] ICU 1/40 4/29 Ivashkin (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.26-3.97] death 4/99 4/101 Ivashkin (RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.23-2.95] ventilation 4/99 5/101 Ivashkin (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.24-2.22] ICU 5/99 7/101 Ivashkin (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.84-1.08] recov. time 99 (n) 101 (n) Louca 8% 0.92 [0.85-0.99] cases Di Pierro (RCT) 98% 0.02 [0.00-0.33] cases 0/64 24/64 Holt 30% 0.70 [0.45-1.10] cases 20/909 426/14,318 Ahanchian (DB RCT) 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.25] symp. case 1/29 4/31 Ahanchian (DB RCT) 85% 0.15 [0.01-2.73] cases 0/29 3/31 Wischme.. (DB RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.38-1.17] m/s case 16/91 24/91 Wischme.. (DB RCT) 38% 0.62 [0.41-0.93] symp. case 24/91 39/91 Wischme.. (DB RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.37-1.45] recov. time 91 (n) 91 (n) Wischme.. (DB RCT) 43% 0.57 [0.25-1.30] cases 8/91 14/91 probiotics COVID-19 outcomes c19probiotics.com Jan 26, 2022 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors probiotics Favors control
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases mortality, morbidity, collateral damage, and the risk of endemic status. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. WCH and FLCCC provide treatment protocols.
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