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All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent: 
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 30% Improvement Relative Risk c19probiotics.com Holt et al. NCT04330599 Probiotics Prophylaxis Favors probiotics Favors control
Holt, 15,227 patient probiotics prophylaxis study: 30% fewer cases [p=0.11] https://c19p.org/holtk
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Risk factors for developing COVID-19: a population-based longitudinal study (COVIDENCE UK)
Holt et al., Thorax, doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2021-217487, COVIDENCE UK, NCT04330599 (history)
30 Mar 2021    Source   PDF   Share   Tweet
Prospective survey-based study with 15,227 people in the UK, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin A, vitamin D, zinc, selenium, probiotics, and inhaled corticosteroids; and higher risk with metformin and vitamin C. Statistical significance was not reached for any of these. Except for vitamin D, the results for treatments we follow were only adjusted for age, sex, duration of participation, and test frequency. NCT04330599 (history). COVIDENCE UK.
The immune effects of probiotics are strain-specific.
risk of case, 30.4% lower, RR 0.70, p = 0.11, treatment 20 of 909 (2.2%), control 426 of 14,318 (3.0%), NNT 129, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, minimally adjusted, group sizes approximated.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: significant unadjusted confounding possible.
Holt et al., 30 Mar 2021, prospective, United Kingdom, peer-reviewed, 34 authors, study period 1 May, 2020 - 5 February, 2021, trial NCT04330599 (history) (COVIDENCE UK).
Contact: a.martineau@qmul.ac.uk.
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